Learning is significant when the student can relate new learning material with previous knowledge existing cognitive structure. On the other hand, that the task is potentially significant, the ideas expressed symbolically should be related to what students know or have cognitive sense to him. This internal process in the mind of the person causes a change in their cognitive structure in the newly acquired and that which is linked with information. Similarly, the concept of discovery learning to achieve meaningful learning, based on that through the same teachers can offer students more opportunities to learn for themselves. Thus, discovery learning is learning where students build themselves their own knowledge, in contrast to traditional teaching or transmitting knowledge, where the teacher intended that the information is simply received by students.
Discovery learning is especially effective in teaching the sciences, as reported in several studies results, in which students, employing strategies that promote discovery learning perform better than those where teaching is based on the transmission of information. Those educators who support discovery learning, consider it a consistent method of learning the ways people and allows students to progress to the extent that assimilates the new information. One of the most important characteristics of discovery learning is that the content to be learned is not provided in its final form, it has to be discovered by the subject, which requires an active role of the student, allowing you to apply learning to new situations. There are different forms of discovery, from a pure discovery, almost autonomous, to a guided discovery, guided by the teacher. In the context of teaching and learning in the classroom, it is mostly used the latter. The procedures of teaching by guided discovery involves providing students with opportunities to actively manipulate objects and transform them by direct action and activities to search, explore and analyze. These opportunities not only increase the students’ knowledge about the subject, but stimulate their curiosity and help them develop strategies for learning to learn, discover knowledge, in other situations. Whereas there is no real understanding, until the students to apply this knowledge in other situations, learning involves describe and interpret the situation, establish relationships between the relevant factors, selecting, applying rules, methods, and build their own conclusions. Moreover, in the area of knowledge, science and technology are protagonists of the changes that have taken place in recent times. Everyday life, the media, among others, mediates the interaction of society with different technological products and scientific knowledge.
Currently, the global trend is to achieve a comprehensive understanding of applied science, which states that in education is necessary to provide integration processes that allow students to access the world and participate in it. Balance the critic investigated It provides valuable outlined to improve teaching upper level and allows us to visualize where should conduct reforms and educational innovations elements. However, there are points that need to be improved: one is that most research analyzed on good teaching practices lack a theoretical foundation and show a “naive empiricism”; i.e. assume that the issue is not univocal and approached from a perspective that allows confront it and validate it. Moreover, the very concept of teaching quality debates awake, because to characterize a good teacher should go beyond a list of teaching skills; the quality is more than just a description of independent skills, so you have to take into account other aspects such as their professional identity, pedagogical beliefs, and commitment to the profession.