A scientific method is a scientific approach used to resolve a scientific problem related to the betterment of human beings. In order to resolve a specific scientific issue, a scientific method is adopted which consists of following steps.
Most of the scientific investigations start with an observation. After selecting a specific scientific issue, observations are made to collect relevant information.
In the light of the observed facts and previously collected information or data, scientists make “intelligent guesses” as to what may be the possible answer or solution to a given scientific issue or question. This intelligent guess in a form of a statement is called hypothesis. Therefore, the hypothesis is a statement made by scientist about a certain phenomenon, on the basis of available information.
To test the proposed hypothesis, certain deductions, which are logical predictions, are made. In other words, deduction is the logical explanation of the given hypothesis. It does not require any type of experimentation. Here scientists explain theoretically and hypothetically that what the reason behind a particular thing is. A number of deductions can be made to explain the hypothesis. These deductions can be tested and verified by experiments.
The next step is to test and justify each deduction (prediction) practically to find out whether or not the hypothesis is correct. In testing the deduction, we are actually testing a hypothesis. This is where a scientist shows his skills on an experiment. Experiments are necessary to know the authenticity of a hypothesis.
The results of experiments are the conclusive factors. The result of an experiment verifies the deduction and hypothesis given by the scientist than the hypothesis is. If the result of an experiment does not verifies the hypothesis then this hypothesis is considered as invalid.
It is not always possible to confirm a hypothesis immediately. The validity of a hypothesis rests on a gradual accumulation of indirect evidences. As more and more evidence come to hand, the hypothesis gets increasing acceptance and eventually is promoted to the rank of a theory. A theory is a set of scientific assumptions consistent with one another and supported by evidence, but not fully proved e.g. theory of evolution.
Thus, a scientist studies a problem in a sequential manner through observations, questions, hypothesis, deduction, test, or experimentation. A set of data taken from experiment, proves or disproves the hypothesis. A cautious attitude expressed in the form of criticism and further tests are performed until a satisfactory answer is obtained.